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literature of india

Indian literature is generally believed to be the oldest in the world. With vast cultural diversities, there are around two dozen officially recognized languages in India. Over thousands of years, huge literature has been produced in various languages in India. It is to be noted that a large part of. Dec 11,  · literature of India 1. FACTS:• World’s second most populous nation• Seventh largest in area• 3, km wide• Shoreline of about 7, km• India and Bharat are both official names. 2. FACTS:• Early settlers called their land “Bharat Varsha” or “Bharat”.• During medieval times, it . Indian literature: Oral literature in the vernacular languages of India is of great antiquity, but it was not until about the 16th cent. that an extensive written literature appeared.


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Popular epicssuch as the Mahabharata and the Ramayanawere injected with didactic sections on religion and morality and elevated to the status of sacred literature.

Their heroes, Krishna and Rama literature of india, were incorporated into Vaishnavism as avatars incarnations of Vishnu. The concept of incarnations was useful in subsuming local deities and cults, literature of india. The epics also served as a treasury of stories, which provided themes and characters for countless poems and plays. The works of the dramatist Bhasanotably Svapnavasavadatta and Pratijnayaugandharayanawere foundational to the Sanskrit drama.

Ashvaghosaanother major dramatist who wrote in Sanskrit, literature of india, based his works on Buddhist themes. The composition of Dharma-shastra s collections of treatises on sacred dutiesliterature of india, among which the most often quoted is ascribed to Manubecame important in a period of social flux in which traditional social law and usage were important literature of india precedent, literature of india.

A commentary on the earlier Sanskrit grammar of Panini was provided by the Mahabhasya of Patanjalitimely because even the non-Indian dynasties of the north and west made extensive use of Sanskrit. Of the sciences, astronomy and medicine were foremost, both reflecting the interchange of ideas with western Asia.

Two basic medical treatises, composed by Caraka and Sushruta, date to this period. The presence of foreigners, most of whom settled in Indian cities and adopted Indian habits and behaviour in addition to religion, became a problem for social theorists because the newcomers had to be fitted into caste society.

It was easier to accommodate a group rather than an individual into the social hierarchybecause the group could be given a jati status. The literature of india definition of caste society continued as before, and the four varna literature of india were referred to as the units of society. The assimilation of local cults demanded the assimilation of cult priests, who had to be accommodated within the Brahmanic hierarchy.

It is likely that in such periods of social change some lower-caste groups may have moved up the ladder of literature of india hierarchy. Historians once regarded the Gupta period c. It was also thought to have been an age of material prosperity, particularly among the urban elite, and of renascent Hinduism. Some of these assumptions have been questioned by more-extensive studies of the post-Mauryan, pre-Gupta period.

Archaeological evidence from the earlier Kushan levels suggests greater material prosperity, to such a degree that some historians argue for an urban decline in the Gupta period. Much of Gupta literature and literature of india derived from that of earlier periods, and renascent Hinduism is probably more correctly dated to the post-Gupta time.

The Gupta realm, although less extensive than that of the Mauryas, did encompass the northern half and central parts of the subcontinent, literature of india. The Gupta period also has been called an imperial age, but the administrative centralization so characteristic of an imperial system is less apparent than during the Mauryan period.

The Guptasa comparatively unknown family, came from either Magadha or eastern Uttar Pradesh. The third king, literature of india, Chandra Gupta I reigned c. He married a Licchavi princess—an event celebrated in a series of literature of india coins.

It has been suggested that, literature of india, if the Guptas ruled in Prayaga present-day Prayagraj in eastern Uttar Pradeshthe literature of india alliance may have added Magadha to their domain. The Gupta era began inbut it is not clear whether this date commemorated the accession of Chandra Gupta or the assumption of the status of independence. Chandra Gupta appointed his son Samudra Gupta reigned c. The coins of an obscure prince, literature of india, Kacha, suggest that there may have been contenders for the throne.

Not all the conquered regions were annexed, but the range of operations established the military prowess of the Guptas. Samudra Gupta acquired Pataliputra present-day Patnawhich was to become the Gupta capital.

Proceeding down the eastern coast, he also conquered the states of Dakshinapatha but reinstated the vanquished rulers. Among those he rendered subservient were the rulers of Aryavarta, various forest chiefs, the northern oligarchiesand border states in the east, in addition to Nepal.

It would seem that the campaign extended Gupta power in northern and eastern India and virtually eliminated the oligarchies and the minor kings of central India and the Ganges valley. The identity of the islands remains problematic, as they could either have been the ones close to India or those of Southeast Asiawith which communication had increased.

The Ganges valley and central India were the areas under direct administrative control. The campaign in the eastern coastal areas may have been prompted by the desire to acquire the trading wealth of these regions.

The grim image of Samudra Gupta as a military conqueror is amelioratedliterature of india, however, by references to his love of poetry and by coins on which he is depicted playing the lyre. Gupta interest lay not merely in the political control of the west but in the wealth the area derived from trade with western and southeastern Asia. Gupta territory adjoining the northern Deccan was secured through a marriage alliance with the Vakataka dynastythe successors of the Satavahanas in the area.

His Chinese contemporary Faxiana Buddhist monk, traveled in India and left an account of his impressions. Administratively, the Gupta kingdom was divided into provinces called desha s or bhukti s, and these in turn into smaller units, the pradesha s or vishaya s. The provinces were governed literature of india kumaramatya s, high imperial officers or members of the royal family. A decentralization of authority is evident from the composition of the municipal board adhishthana-adhikaranawhich consisted of the guild president nagara-shreshthinthe chief merchant sarthavahaand representatives of the artisans and of the scribes.

During that period the term samantawhich originally meant neighbour, was beginning to be applied to intermediaries who had been given grants of land or to conquered feudatory rulers. There was also a noticeable tendency for some of the higher administrative offices to become hereditary.

The lack of firm control over conquered areas led to their resuming independence. The threat was that of a group known in Indian sources as the Hunas, or Hunsthough it is not clear whether this group had any relations to the Huns of European history.

They were in any event a branch of a Central Asian group known as the Hephthalites. Skanda Gupta c. Skanda Gupta managed to rally Gupta strength for a while, but after his death the situation deteriorated. Dissensions within the royal family added to the problem. Gupta genealogies of this period show considerable variance in their succession lists. By literature of india mid-6th century, when the dynasty apparently came to an end, the kingdom had dwindled to a small size.

Northern India and parts of central India were in the hands of the Hunas, literature of india. The first Huna king in India was Toramana early 6th centurywhose inscriptions have been found as far south as Eran Madhya Pradesh.

His son Mihirakulaa patron of Shaivismis recorded in Buddhist tradition as uncouth and extremely cruel. The Gupta rulers, together with Yashodharman of Malavaseem to have confronted Mihirakula and forced literature of india back to the north, literature of india.

Ultimately his kingdom was limited to Kashmir and Punjab with its capital at Shakala possibly present-day Sialkot. Huna power declined after literature of india reign. The coming of the Hunas brought northern India once more into close contact with Central Asiaand a number of Central Asian tribes migrated into India. It has been suggested that the Gurjaras, who gradually spread to various parts of northern India, literature of india be identified with the Khazarsa Turkic literature of india of Central Asia, literature of india.

The Huna invasion challenged the stability of the Gupta kingdom, literature of india, even though the ultimate decline may have been caused by internal factors. A severe blow was the resultant disruption of the Central Asian trade and the decline in the income that northern India had derived from it.

Some of the north Indian tribes migrated to other regions, and this movement of peoples effected changes in the social structure of the post-Gupta period. Of the kingdoms that arose as inheritors of literature of india Gupta territory, the most literature of india were those of Valabhi Saurashtra and Kathiawar ; Gujarata originally the area near Jodhpurbelieved to be the nucleus of the later Pratihara kingdom; Nandipuri near Bharuch ; Maukhari Magadha ; the kingdom of the later Guptas in the area between Malava and Magadha ; and those of BengalNepal, and Kamarupa in the Assam Valley.

Orissa Kongoda was under the Mana and Shailodbhava dynasties before being conquered by Shashankaking of Gauda lower Bengal.

In the early 7th century Shashanka annexed a substantial part of the Ganges valley, where he came into conflict with the Maukharis and the rising Puspabhuti Pushyabhuti dynasty of Thanesar north of Delhi. The Puspabhuti dynasty aspired to imperial status during the reign of Harsha Harsavardhana. Sthanvishvara Thanesar appears to have been a small principality, probably under the suzerainty of the Guptas. Harsha came to the throne in and ruled for 41 years, literature of india.

A fuller account of the period is given by the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Xuanzangwho traveled through India and stayed for some time at a monastery at Nalanda. Harsha acquired Kannauj in Farrukhabad districtwhich became the eponymous capital of his large kingdom.

He waged a major but unsuccessful campaign against Pulakeshin II, a king of the Calukya dynasty of the northern Deccan, and was confined to the northern half of the subcontinent.

Nor was his success spectacular in western India against Valabhl, Nandipurl, and Sind lower Indus valley, literature of india. In his eastern campaign, however, Harsh met with literature of india resistance Shashanka having died in and acquired Magadha, Vanga, and Kongoda Orissa. His alliance with Bhaskaravarman of Kamarupa Assam proved helpful. Although Harsha failed to build an empire, his kingdom was of no mean size, and he earned the reputation of being the preeminent ruler of the north.

He is remembered as the author of three Sanskrit plays— RatnavallPriyadarshikaand Nagananda —the theme of the last indicating his interest in Buddhist thought.

The Tang emperor of ChinaTaizongsent a series of embassies to Harsha, establishing closer ties between the two realms. Yashovarman came into conflict with Lalitaditya, the king of Kashmir of the Karkota dynasty, and appears to have been defeated. In the 8th literature of india the rising power in western India was that of the Gurjara-Pratiharas.

The Rajput dynasty of the Guhilla had its centre in Mewar literature of india Chitor as its base. The Capa family was associated with the city of Anahilapataka present-day Patan and are involved in early Rajput history. In the Haryana region the Tomara Rajputs Tomara dynastyoriginally feudatories of the Gurjara-Pratiharas, founded the city of Dhillika modern Delhi in The political pattern of this time reveals a rebirth of regionalism and of new political and economic structures.

In the early 8th century a new power base was established briefly with the arrival of the Arabs in Sind. Inscriptions of the western Indian dynasties speak of controlling the tide of the mlecchawhich has been interpreted in this case to mean the Arabs; some Indian sources use the term yavana.

The conquest of Sind marked the easternmost extent of Arab territorial control, literature of india. The literature of india naval expedition met with failure, so the Arabs conducted an overland campaign.

The Arab hold on Sind was loose at first, and the local chiefs remained virtually independent, but by the invaders had established direct rule, with a governor representing the Muslim caliph.

Arab attempts to advance into Punjab and Kashmir, however, were checked. The Indians did not fully comprehend the magnitude of Arab political and economic ambitions. Along the west coast, literature of india, the Arabs were seen as familiar traders from western Asia.

The possible competition with Indian trade was not realized. In the Deccan the Vakataka dynasty was closely literature of india to the Guptas. With a nucleus in Vidarbha, the founder of literature of india dynasty, Vindhyashakti, extended his power northward as far as Vidisha near Ujjain.

At the end of the 4th century, a collateral line of the Vakatakas was established by Sarvasena in Vatsagulma Basim, in Akola districtand the northern line helped the southern to conquer Kuntala southern Maharashtra. The domination of the northern Deccan by the main Vakataka line during this period is clearly established by the matrimonial alliances not only with the Guptas but also with other peninsular dynasties such as the Visnukundins and the Kadambas, literature of india.

 

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literature of india

 

India - India - Literature: Popular epics, such as the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, were injected with didactic sections on religion and morality and elevated to the status of sacred literature. Their heroes, Krishna and Rama, were incorporated into Vaishnavism as avatars (incarnations) of Vishnu. The concept of incarnations was useful in subsuming local deities and cults. Indian literature is generally believed to be the oldest in the world. With vast cultural diversities, there are around two dozen officially recognized languages in India. Over thousands of years, huge literature has been produced in various languages in India. It is to be noted that a large part of. Aug 22,  · Indian literature, writings of the Indian subcontinent, produced there in a variety of vernacular languages, including Sanskrit, Prakrit, Pali, Bengali, Bihari, respectively). From these and other related languages emerged the modern languages of northern India. The literature of those languages depended largely on the ancient Indian.